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Description of the objective:

  • Understand what determines the amount of open flux from the Sun, how open field lines are distributed at the solar surface at any given time, and how these open field lines reconnect and change their connection across the solar surface in time. 
  • Origin of the open magnetic flux from:
    • Coronal holes.
    • Active regions.
    • Quiet Sun.
    • Loops of varying heights.
    • Tips and legs of the helmet streamer.
    • Polar plumes.
    • Other solar structures.



  • We need MAG measurements for the magnetic field polarity and strength, over a wide range of distances and latitudes, combined with signatures of connectivity such as suprathermal electrons (SWA/EAS) to determine the amount of open magnetic flux in the heliosphere from solar minimum to maximum. 
  • METIS can provide electron density and outflow velocity maps with a 20-30 min cadence.
  • EUI can support with FSI for complementing observations in the lower lying corona, at low cadence as METIS.
  • PHI can provide low-resolution synoptic context.
  • As for all goals of the category 1.1.3 Source regions of the heliospheric magnetic field, far side observations will be most innovative, as well as high-latitude. EMC Quiet periods are required for the MAG measurements.


However up to now, we have only included it in R_SMALL_MRES_MCAD_AR_LongTerm-Long-Term, but this would only partially address it.