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  • Understand coronal conditions under which the shocks form and determine the interplanetary conditions where they evolve.
  • Identify interplanetary shocks and characterise their spatial and temporal evolution. Characterize shock structure and determine whether they are locally quasi-perpendicular or quasi-parallel, and study kinetic properties of shock-related waves and turbulence that control ion scattering mean free paths near the shock. [IS only]
  • Study heating and dissipation mechanisms at shocks with radial distance.
  • Infer the rates of particle acceleration and the injection energies as a function of distance and along different parts of the shock. [IS only; radial dependence; multiple orbits]
  • Identify mechanisms that heat the thermal solar wind particle populations near shocks and determine their energy partition.
  • (To be moved in the activities section: Correlate coronal shocks passage with in situ measurements: METIS visible-light and UV observations of the shock in corona together with RPW measurements of type II radio bursts).