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2.3.1 What are the properties and distribution of heliospheric shocks?

  • Understand coronal conditions under which the shocks form and determine the interplanetary conditions where they evolve.
  • Characterize shock structure, determine whether they are locally quasi-perpendicular or quasi-parallel, and study kinetic properties of shock-related waves and turbulence that control ion scattering mean free paths near the shock. [IS only]
  • Infer the rates of particle acceleration and the injection energies as a function of distance and along different parts of the shock. [IS only; radial dependence; multiple orbits]


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