2.3.1 What are the properties and distribution of heliospheric shocks?
- Understand coronal conditions under which the shocks form and determine the interplanetary conditions where they evolve.
- Identify interplanetary shocks and characterise their spatial and temporal evolution. Characterize shock structure and determine whether they are locally quasi-perpendicular or quasi-parallel, and study kinetic properties of shock-related waves and turbulence that control ion scattering mean free paths near the shock. [IS only]
- Study heating and dissipation mechanisms at shocks with radial distance.
- Infer the rates of particle acceleration and the injection energies as a function of distance and along different parts of the shock. [IS only; radial dependence; multiple orbits]
- Identify mechanisms that heat the thermal solar wind particle populations near shocks and determine their energy partition.