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  • Explore the type III radio bursts delays (Krucker et al., 1999; Haggerty and Roelof, 2002). Possible explanations:
    • 1) Propagation effects in the interplanetary medium (Cane and Erickson, 2003). 
    • 2) Delayed acceleration by large-scale coronal transient (EIT or Moreton) waves or by shock waves associated with narrow CMEs (Simnett et al., 2002; Rouillard et al., 2012). Also for non-impulsive SEP events.
    • 3) Coronal magnetic restructuring in the aftermath of CMEs (Maia and Pick, 2004; Klein et al. 2005; van Driel-Gesztelyi et al., 2014).


Required observations:

  • For 1: SWASWA Normal Mode, several hours, perihelion, other instruments: RPW, MAG, EPD, STIX. 
  • EPD: All sensors: spectra, composition, fluxes, directional information, together with IS instruments. Solar source identification by RS instruments (full disk imaging). Also coordinated multi-s/c SEP observation campaigns with SPP & other missions.


  • METIS: Measurement of coronal outflow velocity and density in corona to identify the shock front. Measurement of shock passage timing relative to the flare occurrence.
    • Products:
      • CME velocity maps 
      • CME density maps 
      • CME directionality
      • CME flag
    • Modes:
      • GLOBAL (before the event, if possible), min. obs time 2 hr, data volume ≤ 300 Mb.
      • CMEOBS, starts after CME flag rise, min. obs time 1 hr (high cadence, 1 min), data volume ~ 2.137 Gb.
      • GLOBAL (after the event), min. obs time 2 hr, data volume ≤ 300 Mb.
    • Other instruments: PHI, EUI, STIX, SoloHI, MAG, SWA, EPD, RPW.


  • For 1: Several hours.

Other constraints:

  • For 1: Perihelion.
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