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  • How shocks can accelerate electrons to relativistic energies (never observed for shocks near 1 AU)? Is a more energetic seed population necessary?

 

 

Required observations:

  • SWASWA Normal Mode, several hours, perihelion, other instruments: RPW, MAG, EPD.
  • EPD: All sensors: spectra, composition, fluxes, directional information, together with IS instruments. Solar source identification by RS instruments (full disk imaging). Also coordinated multi-s/c SEP observation campaigns with SPP & other missions.

 

  • METIS: (TO BE REVIEWED, not in line with RS full disk imaging requirement from EPD input. If finally approved, then to be possibly copied in all sections 3.1.4.*): Measurement of coronal outflow velocity and density in corona to identify the shock front. Measurement of shock passage timing relative to the flare occurrence.
    • Products:
      • CME velocity maps 
      • CME density maps 
      • CME directionality
      • CME flag
    • Modes:
      • GLOBAL (before the event, if possible), min. obs time 2 hr, data volume ≤ 300 Mb.
      • CMEOBS, starts after CME flag rise, min. obs time 1 hr (high cadence, 1 min), data volume ~ 2.137 Gb.
      • GLOBAL (after the event), min. obs time 2 hr, data volume ≤ 300 Mb.
    • Other instruments: PHI, EUI, STIX, SoloHI, MAG, SWA, EPD, RPW.

Duration:

  • Several hours.

Other constraints:

  • Perihelion.

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