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3.1.2.7 How are so many electrons accelerated on such short time scales to explain the observed hard X-ray fluxes?

  • Understand the transport of electrons from the coronal acceleration site down to the hard X-ray footpoints (Miller et al., 1997; Önel et al., 2007; Battaglia and Benz, 2007). 
  • Understand effects of non-uniform plasma ionisation (Kontar et al., 2003), return current (Zharkova and Gordovskyy, 2006), and beam-plasma interaction via various plasma waves (Kontar, 2001).
  • Partially limb-occulted flare observations: provide unique information about the suprathermal electrons closest to the site in the corona where their acceleration is believed to occur (Krucker and Lin, 2008).
  • Study coronal phenomena in hard X-rays associated with CMEs:
    • Highly occulted events associated with fast backside CMEs (Krucker et al., 2007), non-thermal bremsstrahlung.
      • Produced by flare-accelerated energetic electrons (>10 keV) trapped in magnetic structures related to the CME or
      • Accelerated in CME current sheets or other coronal magnetic restructuring related to the CME.
  • Explore the consequences of particle acceleration by Alfvén waves created by the magnetic reconfiguration during magnetic reconnection (Fletcher & Hudson, 2008).

 

 

  • SoloHI: Contribute (mode: shock+synoptic), no min. obs time, all distances, w/EUI-STIX-METIS.
  • EUIEUI synoptic mode (S). EUI FD 174, 304, cadence 2 min. EUI HR 174 and Ly-alpha, cadence 1 min for 30 min before and during X-ray peak. Best when the solar limb from SO is connected to Earth, or other s/c.
  • EPD: All sensors: spectra, composition, fluxes, directional information, together with IS instruments. Solar source identification by RS instruments (full disk imaging). Also coordinated multi-s/c SEP observation campaigns with SPP & other missions.

 

 

  • METIS: Measurement of coronal outflow velocity and density in corona to identify the shock front. Measurement of shock passage timing relative to the flare occurrence.
    • Products:
      • CME velocity maps 
      • CME density maps 
      • CME directionality
      • CME flag
    • Modes:
      • GLOBAL (before the event, if possible), min. obs time 2 hr, data volume ≤ 300 Mb.
      • CMEOBS, starts after CME flag rise, min. obs time 1 hr (high cadence, 1 min), data volume ~ 2.137 Gb.
      • GLOBAL (after the event), min. obs time 2 hr, data volume ≤ 300 Mb.
    • Other instruments: PHI, EUI, STIX, SoloHI, MAG, SWA, EPD, RPW.

 

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