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4.3.1 What are the velocity and magnetic vectors in the solar photosphere?

  • Requires simultaneous observations from PHI and an instrument on the ground or another satellite.
  • Simultaneous observations at different viewing angles.

4.3.2  What is the 3D geometry of the solar surface in convective and magnetic features?

  • Study the undulating 3D structure of the visible solar surface (Lites et al., 2004).
  • Wilson depression appearing in magnetic structures such as faculae, pores and sunspots (Solanki, 2003).
  • Exact estimate of the height difference of the surface layer of different structures.
  • Local helioseismology of active regions (Gizon and Birch, 2005). 

4.3.3  How does the brightness of magnetic features change over the solar disk?

  • Variation across the disk of the contrast of magnetic features relative to the quiet Sun (Topka et al., 1997; Ortiz et al., 2002; Hirzberger and Wiehr, 2005).

4.3.4  What is the long-term behaviour of active regions?

  • Study sunspot evolution during co-rotation phase.
  • Study the large-scale flows (e.g. sunspot moat flows) in and around active regions.
  • Magnetic oscillations in sunspots and active regions.


4.3.5  How do magnetic fields emerge on the solar surface (coalescence, magnetic loops, convective collapse?).

  • See e.g. Lamb et al., 2008; Centeno et al., 2007; Martínez González & Bellot Rubio, 2009; Nagata et al., 2008.




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